hierarchy, mobility, and ariStocracieS in .NET Draw datamatrix 2d barcode in .NET hierarchy, mobility, and ariStocracieS

hierarchy, mobility, and ariStocracieS use none none printer toinclude none on none Internatioanl Orgnization for Standardization living on r none for none oyal estates. Therefore it is very likely that similar instances of advancement into court aristocracies happened, if only infrequently. Several additional points might be made about these parvenus to courtly aristocracy.

First, consider the role education played in Andarchius s rise. It is interesting to note how Lupus deemed the slave s enthusiasm for literature as a quality that trumped his low social position. Despite Andarchius s servile rank, Lupus apparently envisioned him as a credible ornament for the Austrasian court.

Perhaps Lupus thought no differently about Andarchius than he did about the literarily talented Venantius Fortunatus. Apparently a display of literary talent before a Gallic courtier impressed by such ability could pay dividends in the form of social advancement regardless of a client s original rank . Otherwise, I find an interesting aspect of Leudast s career to be the lasting influence of the royal officeholder, despite his lowly social beginning.

I am especially impressed by Leudast s ability to recover (almost) from his fall from grace in 580. Despite being declared an outlaw and excommunicated, Leudast was able to remove his possessions from Tours to Bourges. Twice he stayed alive by seeking sanctuary.

164 Once when some inhabitants of Bourges seized his property, he rounded up supporters, from Tours no less, and forcefully recovered it. While taking refuge in sanctuary at Poitiers, he reportedly used to exit the church from time to time and rob local houses. Regardless of the fact that Gregory s portrayal of the count as a ruffian was very biased, Leudast must actually have been a person who could be relied upon to effectively use violence to exercise power.

While he was an outlaw, Leudast realized that he still could rely on an element from the Tourangeaux perhaps some were trained soldiers; perhaps others were allied influential property owners with armed retainers to join him and benefit in his belligerent exploits at Bourges and Poitiers. Because Leudast managed to have charges of both treason and excommunication lifted, this means that several bishops (unnamed by Gregory) and King Chilperic must have decided some time after 580 that Leudast, and perhaps his wife s family, was influential enough that it would be wise to compromise with him. This would then.

164. Greg. Tur., Hist. 5.49. Social mobility in late antique gaul suggest tha t Leudast had reason to be confident of his security when he sought his fatal audience with Fredegund in 584. Had the queen not harbored such personal resentment and brought about his unforeseen death, one can suspect that Chilperic would have restored him as count at Tours! A Merovingian king had use for a retainer who demanded such respect . And a proven ability to summon and lead violent men could take a person far in the courts of Barbarian Gaul, regardless of his social origin .

A third kind of aristocracy, and in fact the one social sub-group for which the most evidence exists, consisted of prominent people at church. Even before imperial posts disappeared in Gaul, landed aristocrats had begun eyeing bishoprics as positions by which they might maintain and enhance local power. They found in high church office not simply an immediate benefit but also a lasting boon that their families ought to maintain.

By the end of the fifth century, establishment of episcopal dynasties in Gaul had begun.165 As has been mentioned, Avitus of Vienne succeeded his father as bishop around 494/96, and Caesarius succeeded a relation as Bishop of Arles in 502. The best evidence for a Gallic aristocratic family strategizing to control bishoprics is that pertaining to Gregory of Tours kin.

Gregory s maternal and paternal relatives vied with other aristocratic families to hold sees at Langres, Clermont, Lyons, and Tours. Of these cities, the family s firmest control seems to have been at Langres, which Venantius described as a family see (patria sedes).166 In 506/07, Gregorius succeeded Armentarius, likely his father-in-law, as bishop of Langres.

167 Son Tetricus then succeeded his father Gregorius in 539/40. Tetricus s grandchildren included Eufronius, who became Bishop of Tours, and Armentaria, Gregory s mother. Gregory s older brother Peter was a.

165. Mathis none for none en, Roman Aristocrats in Barbarian Gaul, 91 93. 166.

Ven. Fort., Carm.

4.3.2; Van Dam, Saints and their Miracles, 56.

167. Martin Heinzelmann, Bischofsherrschaft in Gallien: Zur Continuit t r mischer F hrungsschichten vom 4. bis zum 7.

Jahrhundert: soziale, prosopographische und bildungs-geschichtliche Aspecte (Zurich and Munich: Artemis, 1976), 213 14..
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