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The pretherapeutic history of botulinum toxin in .NET Draw USS Code 128 in .NET The pretherapeutic history of botulinum toxin

1. The pretherapeutic history of botulinum toxin use none none integrating toincoporate none for none interleaved 25 throughout the kingdom none none of Wurttemberg in South western Germany. This area near the city of Stuttgart developed as the regional focus of botulinum toxin investigations in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. In 1793, 13 people of whom 6 died were involved in the first well recorded outbreak of botulism in the small southwest German village of Wildbad.

Based on the observed mydriasis in all affected victims, the first official medical specula tion was that the outbreak was caused by an atro pine (Atropa belladonna) intoxication. However, in the controversial scientific discussion, the term sausage poison was introduced by the exponents of the opinion that the fatal disease in Wildbad was caused by the consumption of Blunzen, a popular local food from cooked pork stomach filled with blood and spices. The number of cases with suspected sausage poisoning in Southwestern Germany increased rapidly at the end of the eighteenth century.

Poverty ensuing from the devastating Napoleonic Wars (1795 1813) had led to the neglect of sanitary measures in rural food production (Grusser, 1986). In July 1802, the Royal Government of Wurttemberg in Stuttgart issued a public warning about the harmful consumption of smoked blood sausages. In August 1811, the medical section of the Department rttemberg on of Internal Affairs of the Kingdom of Wu Stuttgart again addressed the problem of sausage poisoning, considering it to be caused by hydro cyanic acid, known at that time as prussic acid.

However, the members of the near Medical Faculty bingen disputed that prussic of the University of Tu acid could be the toxic agent in sausages, suspect ing a biological poison. One of the important bingen, medical professors of the University of Tu Johann Heinrich Ferdinand Autenrieth (1772 1835), asked the Government to collect the reports of general practitioners and health officers on cases of food poisoning for systematic scientific analyses. After Autenrieth had studied these reports, he issued a list of symptoms of the so called sausage poisoning and added a comment, in which he blamed the housewives for the poisoning, because they did not dunk the sausages long enough in.

boiling water, thus tryin g to prevent the sausages sser, 1998). The list of symptoms from bursting (Gru was distributed by a public announcement and contained characteristic features of food borne botulism such as gastrointestinal problems, double vision, mydriasis, and muscle paralysis. In 1815, a health officer in the village of Herrenberg, J.

G. Steinbuch (1770 1818), sent the case reports of seven intoxicated patients who had eaten liver sausage and peas to Professor Autenrieth. Three of the patients had died and the autopsies had been carried out by Steinbuch himself (Steinbuch, 1817).

. Justinus Kerner s observations and publications on botulinum toxin 1817 1822 Contemporaneously with St einbuch, the 29 year old physician and Romantic poet Justinus Kerner (1786 1862) (Figure 1.1), then medical officer in a small village, also reported of a lethal food poisoning. Autenrieth considered the two reports from Steinbuch and Kerner as accurate and important observations and decided to publish them both in 1817 in binger Blatter fu Naturwissenschaften und r the Tu binger Papers for Natural Sciences Arzneykunde [ Tu and Pharmacology ] (Kerner, 1817; Steinbuch, 1817).

Kerner again disputed that an inorganic agent such as hydrocyanic acid could be the toxic agent in the sausages, suspecting a biological poison instead. After he had observed further cases, Kerner published a first monograph in 1820 on sausage poisoning in which he summarized the case his tories of 76 patients and gave a complete clinical description of what we now recognize as botulism. The monograph was entitled Neue Beobachtungen rttemberg so haufig vorfallenden uber die in Wu todtlichen Vergiftungen durch den Genu gerau cherter Wurste [ New observations on the lethal poisoning that occurs so frequently in Wurttemberg owing to the consumption of smoked sausages ] (Kerner, 1820).

Kerner compared the various recipes and ingredients of all sausages which had produced intoxication and found out that among.
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